Major depressive disorder affects an estimated 14.8 million people ages 18 and older, or about 6.7% of the U.S. population.1 There are several types of depression, each of which has some defining depression symptoms and characteristics. However, people with mental health disorders often have comorbid conditions, creating diagnostic challenges for clinicians. This is especially challenging in people with bipolar disorder, with one in five patients receiving an inaccurate diagnosis. Many will overlook manic episodes when depression is the focus. With such a strong symptom, clients tend to receive treatment for only depression. Today, we understand the difference between unipolar vs bipolar disorder and how brain imaging bipolar disorder can help with treatment. Through our dual diagnosis treatment program and additional mental health services, we can strive to accurately diagnosis and treat the issues our clients struggle with. Unipolar vs Bipolar \tMajor depression (also called unipolar depression)-\u00a0This is characterized by severe symptoms that last for at least two weeks, including being sad or irritable. Depression interferes with the ability to work, sleep, eat and participate in activities that were once enjoyable. Disabling episodes of depression can occur once, twice or several times in a person\u2019s lifetime. \tPersistent depressive disorder (also called dysthymia)- This type of depression is typically less severe than major depression, however, it lasts a long time. To qualify for this classification, symptoms need to be chronic \u2014 persisting for a minimum of two years. While this type may not be as disabling as major depression, the symptoms can diminish a person\u2019s ability to fully function and enjoy life. People with a persistent depressive disorder may also experience episodes of major depression. When this combination occurs, we refer to is as double-depression. \tBipolar disorder (formerly called manic depression)-\u00a0Not as common as other types of depressive illnesses, bipolar disorders involve moderate to extreme mood cycles that include at least one episode of mania or hypomania and a varied number of depressive episodes. There are three types of bipolar disorder, with bipolar II being the one with the most dominant depression symptoms, and therefore the form that is most often misdiagnosed.2,3 Neuroimaging 101 The two main types of neuroimaging tests are structural and functional. Structural imaging modalities create a \u201csnapshot\u201d of the brain\u2019s structure, including bone, tissue, blood vessels, tumors, infection, damage and bleeding. Functional imaging reveals the brain\u2019s ever-changing activity and chemistry by measuring the rate of blood flow, chemical activity, and electrical impulses during specific tasks. Currently, the use of neuroimaging to detect mental illnesses is in investigational stages, undergoing clinical research studies. However, early findings show the potential future use of neuroimaging including MRI and PET scans for depression and other mental health disorders.4 The Potential of Brain Imaging Bipolar Disorder In a small study published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, a research team at the University of Pittsburgh looked for potential biomarkers that could yield a definitive diagnosis of unipolar depression versus bipolar depression. The study of 54 adult women utilized a new, minimally invasive imaging method called arterial spin labeling (ASL). ASL was used to measure blood flow in subdivisions of the study subjects\u2019 brains associated with depression. The researchers achieved an accuracy rate of 81% in identifying which of the subjects had\u00a0unipolar depression\u00a0and which had bipolar depression. While this study was limited in size and the findings were preliminary, the researchers were optimistic about the potential of neuroimaging to yield key brain biomarkers for these disorders. While larger studies are warranted, \u201cbipolar brain scan\u201d technology has the potential for yielding an earlier diagnosis than other current clinical methods.5 Additional Research Findings A two-center cross-sectional study was performed, analyzing 58 depressed patients with bipolar I disorder, 58 age- and sex-matched unipolar depressed patients, and 58 matched healthy controls. According to research findings published in JAMA Psychiatry in November 2014, there were reductions in white matter volume within the cerebellum and hippocampus in individuals with bipolar disorder. This provides strong evidence that structural abnormalities in neural regions that support emotion processing are different in individuals with unipolar depression than in people with bipolar disorder. The authors believe that neuroimaging and multivariate pattern classification techniques hold promise as diagnostic methods for delineating these two major mental health disorders.6 Understanding Unipolar vs Bipolar and Treatment with Lucida Treatment Center Lucida Treatment Center is here to provide clients with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment they need. To learn more about unipolar vs bipolar disorders and brain imaging bipolar disorder, contact Lucida Treatment Center at . References \tDepression Statistics. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance website. Accessed June 17, 2016. \tDepression. MedicineNet website. Updated March 17, 2016. Accessed June 17, 2016. \tDepression: What You Need To Know. National Institute of Mental Health website.\u00a0http:\/\/www.nimh.nih.gov\/health\/publications\/depression-what-you-need-to-know-12-2015\/index.shtml\u00a0Accessed June 17, 2016. \tNeuroimaging and Mental Illness: A Window Into the Brain. National Institute of Mental Health website.\u00a0\u00a0http:\/\/www.nimh.nih.gov\/health\/publications\/neuroimaging-and-mental-illness-a-window-into-the-brain\/index.shtml\u00a0Accessed June 17, 2016. \tNovel Scan May Distinguish Unipolar and Bipolar Depression. Medscape website.\u00a0http:\/\/www.medscape.com\/viewarticle\/810111\u00a0Published Aug. 27, 2013. Accessed June 17, 2016. \tRedlich R, Almeida JJ, Grotegerd D, et al. Brain morphometric biomarkers distinguishing unipolar and bipolar depression. A voxel-based morphometry-pattern classification approach. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014;71(11):1222-1230. doi:10.1001\/jamapsychiatry.2014.1100.